Transitive verbs ending in unk
As has been explained under Conjugation 1, in this system, all verbs are to be learnt with their five principal parts:
The first principal part is the infinitive which is the key to most uses of the verb. The distinguishing mark of the infinitive of the second conjugation is that it ends with a consonant + unk. Example: marunk, to hit. Typically these verbs are transitive verbs. Incidentally, marunk has several shades of meaning which are somewhat related to each other. It can stand for “hit”, “beat” or even “kill”.
The second principal part is the present indicative. The future simple and the past continuous are the most obvious derivations from this part. Example: martam = I hit.
The third part is the present indicative negative. Example: marinam = I don’t hit.
The fourth principal part is the past definite. Since verbs of the second conjugation are transitive, this principal part ends in lem. Example: marlem = I hit. As you may know by now, here the subject goes into the instrumental case. Just to drive this point home, the following sentences illustrate the difference between the first and second conjugations just as well as the difference between the intransitive verbs and transitive verbs. Notice that in the second case (transitive verb in the past) the subject gets inflected to the instrumental case:
- Forsu kal poddlo (Francis had a fall yesterday)
- Forsun kal sorôp marlo (Francis killed a snake yesterday)
Notice the difference between Forsu (nominative) and Forsun (instrumental).
Remember that when learning a new verb, you should pay special attention to its fourth principal part which tells you how the verb is to be used in the past definite and other related tenses.
Finally, the fifth principal part is the negative of the simple future. Example: marchonam = I will not hit.
Here are a few examples of regular verbs of the second conjugation:
- Marunk, martam, marinam, marlem, marchonam =to hit.
E,g, Tannem cheddeachêr thapott marlem = He slapped the boy [Literally: He hit a slap on the boy].
- Foddunk, fôddtam, foddinam, fôddlem, fôddchonam =to break. E,g, Tannem battlli foddli = He broke the bottle.
- Kaddnk, kaddtam, kaddinam, kaddlem, kaddchonam = to take. E.g., Tinnem mezailem (=mezavelem) kellem kaddlem = She picked up a banana from the table.
- Sanddunk, sanddtam, sanddinam, sanddlem, sanddchonam = to leave (trans.) E.g., Ti boxênt kednach jevonn sanddina = She never leaves food in the plate.
- Vachunk, vachtam, vachinam, vachlem, vachchonam = to read. E.g. Tum kitem vachtai? = What are you reading?