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Grammar

Regular Conjugations — Conjugation 2

Transitive verbs ending in unk As has been explained under Conjugation 1, in this system, all verbs are to be learnt with their five principal parts: The first principal part is the infinitive which is the key to most uses of the verb. The distinguishing mark of the infinitive of the second conjugation is that it ends … Continue reading »

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Regular Conjugations — Conjugation 1

Intransitive verbs ending in onk Before we begin with the regular conjugations, there are a few points I would like to underscore. As I have mentioned earlier, in my system of Konkani grammar, every verb is presented in its five principal parts. These parts have been especially selected because practically all other tenses of that verb are … Continue reading »

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Regular Declensions — Declension 2

The Second Declension When we talk about declensions, we deal mainly with nouns (and also adjectives that are used nominally, i.e., as nouns, as in “The good, the bad and the ugly”). The second declension comprises all feminine words ending in i, with the exception of monosyllabic or disyllabic nouns (not adjectives) having a single consonant before the i, e.g. … Continue reading »

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Using Postpositions with Nouns or Pronouns

What prepositions are to English and other European languages I have written earlier about postpositions, but a little repetition here will perhaps not be out of place. Some of us are so used to prepositions in English and perhaps other European languages, that they would naturally expect an equivalent in Konkani as well, and rightly so. … Continue reading »

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Irregular verbs: Zanno zaunk & Nokllo zaunk

Indicative Present of zanno zaunk and nokllo zaunk/em> Like most languages, Konkani has a number of irregular verbs. We have already seen one of them: asonk, to be. Zanno zaunk (to know) and nokllo zaunk (not to know) are two others, which are very commonly used.   Zanno zaunk Singular Plural  1st Person  Hanv zannom … Continue reading »

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Regular Declensions — Declension 1

The First Declension We are now starting with regular declensions. I have classified regular declensions by their flex stems. If any nouns form both their flex stems in the same manner, then they belong to the same declension, irrespective of their genders or the manner in which they form their plurals. Thus ambo and tollem belong … Continue reading »

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Conjugations — 3

Negatives of Asonk — Indicative Present and Simple Past Indicative Present (negative) Singular Plural  1st Person  Hanv nam  I am not  Ami nanv We are not  2nd Person  Tum nai Thou art not  Tumi nant You are not  3rd Person  To na, ti na, tem na He/she/it is not  Te nant, teô nant, tim nant  … Continue reading »

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Declensions of Pronouns – 6

The Flex Stems Finally, we come to the very important inflections or, in a way, the roots of all inflections, the flex stems. Some grammarians call them crude forms, others call them just stems; and stems they indeed are. And since they are the very stems of all inflections, it would be more appropriate to call them inflection stems or, to render the … Continue reading »

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Declensions of Pronouns – 5

The Locatives IN and ON In most languages the locatives are expressed through prepositions. Such is certainly the case in European languages and even Latin which has declensions but has no special cases in her declensions to denote location. In Konkani there are two locative cases: locative on and locative in. All the other types … Continue reading »

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Declensions of Pronouns – 4

The Ablative Case The ablative case in Konkani is actually a compounded case. It is the genitive instrumental, or the  instrumental of the genitive case, and its usage is very restricted and yet not uncommon, and hence its importance. It is used mainly to express a person’s ability or inability, competence or incompetence, etc or … Continue reading »

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