Transitive verbs ending in eunk
A brief review
I think it is best to begin with a short review of what we have done so far with regard to the conjugations of Konkani verbs.
As mentioned earlier, the best way to learn any Konkani verb is to learn and, if possible, memorize all its five principal parts. Incidentally, that is a common practice adopted by students of Latin. The reason is that these five principal parts are the key to being able to use the verb in almost all possible tenses. Of particular importance is the fourth principal part, which tells you how the verb is to be used in some tenses, particularly the past definite.
To illustrate that, let us take two simple verbs of the first and second conjugations respectively.
Here are the principal parts of the verb poddonk (to fall)which belongs to the first conjugation (the verbs of the first conjugation are typically intransitive verbs, which means that they do not have an object):
Poddonk, poddtam, poddonam, poddlom, poddchonam
Note that its fourth principal part ends in lom. For the sake of convenience, when formulating the principal parts, it is assumed that the subject is in the first person singular, and masculine in gender, i.e., masculine I. And it is also assumed that if the verb has an object, that object is neuter in gender. In an actual situation, this need not be the case at all: “I” may be a lady or a little girl, and the object may be a male person.
Now, let us take an example of a verb belonging to the second conjugation which typically is a transitive verb:
Marunk, martam, marinam, marlem, marchonam.
Note that the fourth principal part ends in not lom, but lem, i.e., neuter, instead of masculine, indicating that the verb agrees, both in gender and number, not with the subject (who is assumed to be masculine singular), as is the case with a verb of the first conjugation, but with the object (which is assumed to be neuter singular).
Let me illustrate this point with an illustration of each, using the two verbs mentioned above: poddonk and marunk:
Mhozo bhav dhanvtanam margar poddlo. (While running, my brother fell on the road.)
Bhurgean gaddvak boddiên marlem. (The boy hit the donkey with a stick)
Note two characteristics of the second sentence above: The subject is no longer nominative (bhurgo), but takes the instrumental case (bhurgean). Secondly, the verb does not have a masculine ending (marlo) but a neuter one (marlem), because the object, gaddum (the donkey), is neuter. Had the object been feminine instead, the verb ending would be feminine as well while the subject would still take the instrumental case. Thus:
Hanvem fatrachêr boddi marli. (I hit a stick on the stone)
The third conjugation
Now, having brushed up the first two conjugations, let us move on to the third one. Verbs of the third conjugation end in eunk. Typically they are intransitive verbs, but they can span across all categories: transitive, anomalous and, of course, irregular. In any case, as always, it is best to learn all verbs along with their principal parts, so that you need not even worry about what conjugation they may be belonging to.
Here are some verbs of the third conjugation along with their principal parts:
ufeunk, ufetam, ufenam, ufelom, ufeunchonam (to float)
bhiyeunk, bhiyetam, bhiyenam, bhiyelom, bhiyeunchonam (to fear, to be afraid of)
ghameunk, ghametam, ghamenam, ghamelom, ghameunchonam (to perspire or sweat)
jhemeunk, jhemetam, jhemenam, jhemelom, jhemeunchonam (to feel sleepy, to doze off)
polleunk, polletam, pollenam, pollelem, polleunchonam (to look)
piyeunk, piyetam, piyenam, piyelom, piyeunchonam (to drink)
gheunk, ghetam, ghenam, ghetlem, gheunchonam (to take or receive)
You may have noticed from their fourth principal parts that the first four verbs above are intransitive, the fifth one is transitive and the last one is irregular. But what merits our special attention is the sixth verb above, i.e., piyeunk. Notice that it has a real object, and so should have agreed with the object in number and gender and the subject in the past definite tense should have taken an instrumental case ending, like hanvem, tannem, etc. But that doesn’t happen. Instead, the verb in the past definite tense agrees all the way with the subject, which therefore retains its nominative form. Such verbs are called anomalous verbs.
E.g., Amcho bab dud piyelo — Our little boy drank (his) milk.
Note that piyelo is past definite, and dud (milk), which is neuter, is the object of the sentence, yet the verb sticks with the subject and takes the masculine ending, not neuter. Which is why it is classed as an anomalous verb.