Intransitive verbs ending in onk
Before we begin with the regular conjugations, there are a few points I would like to underscore.
As I have mentioned earlier, in my system of Konkani grammar, every verb is presented in its five principal parts. These parts have been especially selected because practically all other tenses of that verb are derived from one of these five principal parts. And this is true not only of the regular verbs but of the irregular verbs as well. Once you you know the principal parts of any verb of any conjugation or even an irregular verb, you know practically everything about the verb, because the rules for deriving all other tenses from the principal parts apply to all the verbs, with the sole exception of the verb to be, i.e., asonk. All the principal parts of verbs, other than the first, i.e., the infinitive, are presented in the first person masculine singular.
To illustrate these parts, I shall take one regular verb of the first conjugation: poddonk,
The first principal part is the infinitive which, like in most languages, is the face of the verb. Some important tenses are also derived from it. With regard to the regular verbs, the infinitive is the key to all uses of the verb. Example: poddonk.
The second principal part is the present indicative. The future simple and the past continuous are the most obvious derivations from this part. Example: poddtam =
The third part is the present indicative negative. Example: poddonam =
I don’t fall.
The fourth principal part is the past definite. And since the verbs of the first conjugation are intransitive, this principal part ends in lom. Example: poddlom
= I fell.
It is this fourth principal part that has slightly varying rules with regard to its derivations. This part is the key to knowing whether the verb is used transitively or intransitively. If it ends in lom,
it means that it is to be used intransitively, while if it ends in lem
then it is used transitively.
Please note that I have referred not to the transitivity or intransitivity of the verb but to the transitive or intransitive use of the verb. The reason is that there are some verbs in Konkani that are actually transitive but are used intransitively in the past definite. That is why they are known as anomalous verbs. It is interesting that most of these verbs happen to refer to bodily functions, e.g., the verb piyeunk, to drink. Normally transitive verbs in the past agree with the object, because the subject goes into the instrumental. But with the anomalous verbs, the subject retains its nominative form and so the verb agrees with it, instead of with the object.
Illustration: Randunk, to cook, and piyeunk are both transitive verbs, but “I cooked rice yesterday” is “Hanvem kal xit randlem“,
but “I drank milk yesterday” is “Hanv kal dud piyelom
“, even though piyeunk
is a transitive verb and has a direct object, dud
.” That is because piyeunk
is an anomalous verb. Therefore, while the fourth principal part of randunk
the fourth principal part of piyeunk
Notice the difference in endings between the two types of verbs.
Therefore I suggest that when learning a verb, do pay special attention to its fourth principal part which will tell you how the verb is to be used in the past definite and other related tenses.
Finally, the fifth principal part is the negative of the simple future. Example: poddchonam
= I will not fall.
Here are a few examples of regular verbs of the first conjugation:
Poddonk, poddtam, poddonam, poddlom, poddchonam =to fall. E,g, kollso bãint poddlo
= the water pot fell in the well.
Futtonk, futt’tam, futtonam, futtlom, futtchonam
=to break. E,g, battlli futtli
= the bottle broke.
kusonk, kustam, kusonam, kuslom, kuschonam
= to rot. E.g., To ambo zhaddar kustolo
= that mango will rot on the tree.
Bosonk, bostam, bosonam, boslom, boschonam
= to sit. E.g., Suknnim ghorar bostat
= birds sit on the house.
Nachonk, nachtam, nachonam, nachlom, nachchona
= to dance. E.g. Ti ekdom’ bori nachta
= she dances very well.